The irradiation distance is short and must be radiated with the surface of the printing material at a close distance to ensure good ink curing. The application of ultraviolet light has been widely used for specific purposes, including the treatment of surfaces in contact with food and the disinfection of water and air. However, since the mode of action of ultraviolet light is mainly attributed to DNA damage, its effectiveness against microorganisms can vary depending on the range of spectrum used. The application of ultraviolet light in food production has gained interest due to the absence of toxic by-products or their impact on organoleptic properties and the reduced need for energy, compared to high hydrostatic pressure processes and thermal pasteurization (Riganakos et al.
To date, the most common sources of UV light have been mercury lamps, which consist of a UV-transmitting envelope (silica glass tube) sealed at both ends, where an electrode is placed and connected to the outside through a seal. The stress-related mechanisms induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in microorganisms and their possible consequences are reviewed. Ultraviolet light covers a wide range of wavelengths in the non-ionizing region of the electromagnetic spectrum, between 200 nm (X-ray) and 400 nm (visible light).